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鹦形目鸟类胸骨的形态结构特征及其相关功能分析

发布时间:2010年06月02日  编辑:张玉光

张玉光1  李志2  刘庆国3

1. bet36365线路检测中心,北京100050;2. 中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,北京 100044)

摘要:鸟类胸骨的形态结构不仅是区分鸟类类型的主要特征,也是判断鸟类飞行等功能的重要依据。鹦形目鸟类作为攀禽中的一部分,其胸骨在形态上表现出明显的特性,如胸骨较宽,喙突相对发育,龙骨突较高,其背棘呈似刀状,龙骨突的前端尚未与锁骨发生愈合,最为显著的相似特征是胸骨后侧缘的凹口均存在不同程度的简化,后缘凹口对称位于后缘外侧,并愈合为2个封闭的不规则圆孔。此外,文中还对11科35件鸟类胸骨的变量指标进行了统计学分析,认为根据胸骨的长度(L)、宽度(W)分别与龙骨突高度(H)的比值(L/H、W/H)可以有效判断不同鸟类的生态习性。综合上述对鸟类胸骨形态学和统计分析的结果得出:鹦形目鸟类特有的胸骨后侧缘凹口的愈合简化以及胸骨变量比值的大小表明了它们不是善飞的鸟类,而是以攀缘为主生活的鸟类。

关键词:鹦形目;胸骨;统计分析;形态与功能

Morphological Characteristic and Function of Sternum in Psittaciformes

ZHANG Yu-guang1   LI Zhi-heng2   LIU Qing-guo3

  (1. Beijing Natural History MuseumBeijing 100050China )

(2. Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing 100044, China)

Abstract: The anatomy of sternum is not only the main character of dividing avian, but also the major criteria to infer their flight ability and other important function. As members of climbers, the of Psittaciformes display obvious morphological characteristic, such as wide sternum with well developed sterno-coracoidal process, high sternal crest and blade-like dorsal spina. Besides, the cranial process does not fuse with clavicle and their most obvious similarity lie in the simplification of the lateral caudal notch, which located symmetrically at lateral sides of caudal sternum and fused into two apertures. In addition, the statistic analyses to variable index have been carried out aimed at 47 individual specimens in 13 families. Theresult shows that ratios (L/H, W/H) of sternal length (L) and width (W) to the height (H) of sternal crest can be used as effective inference of the habit of avian. Combined morphological study and statistic analysis, the conclusion is that the fusion and simplification of the lateral caudal notch and the ratios of sternal variable determine their lack of strong flight ability and adaptation in climbing habit.

Key words: Psittaciformes; Sternum; Statistic analysis; Structure and function

1 鸟类胸骨结构和测量术语示意图(以阿德利企鹅为例)

Fig. 1 Anatomy and terms used in measurement of sternum of Recent Pygoscelis adeliae

 

         

2 鸟类胸骨测量的术语示意(以阿德利企鹅为例)

Fig.2 Sketch map terms used in measurement of sternum of Recent Pygoscelis adeliae

       

           A                 B                C              D             E

3 鸟类胸骨比较 A:非洲鹦鹉B:岩鸽 C:黑枕绿啄木鸟D:绿头鸭 E:斑鸫

Fig. 3  Comparison of the avian sternums

A: Psittacus erithacus  B: Columba rupestris  C: Picus canus  D: Anser platyrhynchos  E: Turdus naumanni

 

4 不同鸟类胸骨变量的比率散点对比图

Fig.4 The sketch plot of sternums variable ratios of different birds

 刊于《野生动物》,201031(1):17-21

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