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红杉属植物在中国黑龙江始新世和云南中新世的发现

发布时间:2009年08月04日  编辑:马清温

马清温 李凤兰 李承森

摘要 中国黑龙江依兰始新世和云南吕合中新世地层发现的标本的叶片形态和排列与杉科的红杉属、水杉属、水松属和落羽杉属植物相似。水松属和落羽杉属植物条形叶的质地为纸质,叶尖比较尖锐,基部下延部分不明显,平行沿小枝轴延伸等特征都与目前的标本特征不同。目前标本的气孔长轴多数与叶片长轴平行也与落羽杉属植物的气孔的长轴方向不同。目前标本的条形叶没有叶柄,为革质,叶片表皮细胞垂周壁不弯曲,与水杉属植物不同,应为红杉属植物。发现于吕合的标本,其营养枝、雌球果以及表皮的特征都与北美红杉的现代标本和化石标本一致,将吕合的标本归为现代近似种S. cf. sempervirens。采自依兰的标本与S. chinensis的鉴定特征一致。黑龙江依兰始新世和云南吕合中新世的标本提供了红杉属化石植物的表皮结构特征,为研究红杉属植物的分类和恢复古气候提供了重要的资料。

关键词  杉科 红杉 角质层 始新世 中新世 中国 

The Coast Redwoods (Sequoia, Taxodiaceae) from the Eocene of Heilongjiang and the Miocene of Yunnan, China

Ma Qingwen  Li Fenglan Li Chengsen 

Abstract Foliated shoots of Sequoia are reported form the Eocene of Yilan, Heilongjiang Province, NE China and from the Miocene of Lühe, Yunnan Province, South China. The leaves from both Yilan and Lühe are linear in shape, coriaceous in texture and the leaf base is decurrent and attached obliquely to the axis of shoots. The walls of the epidermal cells are straight, and the long axis of stomata is mostly parallel to mid-vein in our specimens. It suggests that the new specimens are assignable to Sequoia rather than to the similar genera Metasequoia, Taxodium and Glyptostrobus. The leaves from Yilan tend to be straight, but they are bent outwards in specimens from Lühe, very similar to those of S. sempervirens. The leaves from Lühe are amphistomatic, while those from Yilan are hypostomatic. The stomata of the leaves from Lühe possess guard cells with polar lamellae, a feature missing in the leaves from Yilan. The gross morphology of foliated shoots, female cones, and the epidermal features from Lühe agree with those of S. sempervirens, so the specimens from Lühe are assigned to S. cf. sempervirens. The foliated shoots and epidermises of the specimens in Yilan are fit within the diagnosis of S. chinensis, and therefore the specimens are assigned to this species. The presence of Sequoia during the Eocene in Yilan and Miocene in Lühe is proven by the cuticle, which resolves some problems of identification.

Key words Taxodiaceae, Sequoia, Cuticle, Eocene, Miocene, China.

Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 2005, 135(3-4): 117-129

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