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鸟类跗跖骨远端形态的两种模式及其栖息行为

发布时间:2009年08月04日  编辑:张玉光

张玉光

摘 要 文章通过对大量现生鸟类的跗跖骨进行对比,研究得出:鸟类的跗跖骨远端特征可以被用来作为判断鸟类栖息习性的依据。地栖性鸟类的跗跖骨远端由第Ⅱ、第Ⅲ、第Ⅳ跖骨滑车组成典型的“三角”模式,而树栖性鸟类的跗跖骨远端则是由位于同一平面位置的第Ⅱ、第Ⅲ、第Ⅳ跖骨滑车组成典型的“滚轴”模式。由此还尝试对中生代鸟类的栖息习性和功能作了检验和判定,依此鉴定与借助其他依据识别的结果比较一致。鸟类跗跖骨远端形态结构的观察与研究,对评判古鸟的栖息习性以及鸟类的栖息演化历史都具有重要意义。

关键词 现生鸟 古鸟 跗跖骨 形态结构 地栖 树栖

The Morphology of the Distal
Tarsometatarsus in Perching and Terrestrial Birds

Zhang Yuguang

Abstract By comparing the morphological variations of the tarsometatarsus of living birds,I conclude that the morphology of the distal tarsometatarsus of birds can be used as an indicator of their habits. The tarsometatarsus of terrestrial birds is characteristic of a “triangle” distal end, which is made up of the trochleae of metatarsals Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ,while the tarsometatarsus of arboreal birds is characteristic of a “roller” distal end, which is made up of trochleae of metatarsals Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ on the same plane. Using the distinction in the distal tarsometatarsus between perching and terrestrial birds to determine the habits of some Mesozoic birds prove to be consistent with the conclusions derived from other morphological evidence. It appears that the morphology of the distal tarsometatarsus can be used as an useful tool in reconstructing the habits of a fossil bird and bears significantly on the study of the origin of perching habits in avian evolution.

Key words  Living bird, Fossil bird, Tarsometatarsus, Shape and structure, Terrestrial, Arboreal

            《四川动物》,2006,25(1):21-27

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