张玉光 李志恒 田晓阳
摘 要 鸟类后肢骨骼是组成鸟类运动系统的主要部分，也是协助鸟类完成各项功能行为的骨骼组成。不同生态类型的鸟类在后肢骨骼的组成上存在明显的特征，并以此相区别。文中通过大量对比分析不同类型、不同生态系统鸟类后肢骨骼的组成特点初步得出：鸟类后肢骨骼的长度组成及比率特征是与运动栖息习性等机能紧密联系的。习于地面行走、奔跑为特征的典型地栖鸟类，后肢骨骼中胫跗骨最长，其次跗跖骨长度大于股骨；而以树上栖息、跳跃为特征的典型树栖鸟类，后肢骨骼中胫跗骨最长，而股骨长度大于跗跖骨；猛禽类因生活习性介于前两类鸟类之间，故股骨与跗跖骨长度比较也是在二者之间变化的。同时应用三元图表方法得出的直观统计结果也同样说明上述结论，还尝试对不同鸟类后肢骨骼的运动机能进行推断。不仅从系统剖解学角度将鸟类后肢骨骼系统与运动功能进行了对比剖析，同时对于了解、说明鸟类的运动机理也具有直接的意义，而且依此结论也可作为恢复古鸟后肢骨骼长度和判断其生态行为的参考依据。
关键词 鸟类 后肢骨骼 统计分析 长度比例 运动机理
Hindlimb Segment and Locomotion in Birds: Length Proportion Characteristics and Functions
Zhang Yu-guang Li Zhi-heng Tian Xiao-yang
Abstract The avian hindlimbs, the main structural elements of avian locomotion system and bone component parts, help birds to fulfill their all kinds of functions. The structure of hindlimbs of birds in different ecotype takes on obvious characteristics, from which birds can be distinguished from each other. In this paper, by the large numbers of contrast analyses of structural characteristics of hindlimbs of birds in different types and ecosystems, an elementary conclusion is drown: there is a close relationship between the length ratios of avian hindlimbs, its characteristics and avian functions such as locomotion behavior. The tibiotarsus of hindlimbs of typical terrestrial birds with the characteristic accustomed to walk and run is the longest, and its tarsometatarsus is longer than the femur; while the tibiotarsus of hindlimbs of typical arboreal birds with the characteristic of perching, jumping is the longest, and its femur is longer than the tarsometatarsus; the contrast of length of femur and tarsometatarsus of raptores change between the two former types of birds because its life habit is intervenient of them. Moreover, the intuitionist statistic results by ternary diagrams also account for above conclusion, and try to deduce the locomotion of the different avian hindlimbs. The contrast analyses between system of avian hindlimbs and locomotion function, from the point of view of systematic anatomy, bear direct significance to understand and interpret the locomotion of birds, and above conclusion could be a referential evidence for recovering the length of hindlimbs of ancient bird and determinating its ecological behavior.
Key words birds, hindlimb segment, statistic analysis, length proportion, locomotion